More free Pentesting resources

While I wrote the articles about how to start a pentesting career I came accross more great resources that I did not mention before, so here they are. Most of it is hands-on :).

The Complete Beginner Network Penetration Testing Course for 2019

CTP/OSCE Prep – Wrapping Up Our Prep
Article with OSCE resources.
https://h0mbre.github.io/CTP_Summary/#

Web Application Exploits and Defenses
Online Webapp hacking.
https://google-gruyere.appspot.com/

XSS challenges
Online XSS challenges.
http://xss-quiz.int21h.jp/

XXE Lab
XXE Lab for downloading and hacking.
https://github.com/jbarone/xxelab

Root Me
Hacking challenges online.
https://www.root-me.org/

Cryptopals
Crypto hacking CTF.
https://cryptopals.com/

RingZer0 CTF
https://ringzer0ctf.com/challenges

Damn Vulnerable Web Application (DVWA)
Vulnerable weeb hacking VM (download).
http://www.dvwa.co.uk/

Pentesterlab
List of the free Webapp hacking excercises.
https://pentesterlab.com/exercises?dir=desc&only=free&sort=published_at

Link List with more CTFs and excercises
https://wheresmykeyboard.com/2016/07/hacking-sites-ctfs-wargames-practice-hacking-skills/

Kali Training
https://kali.training/

Vulnhub
Loads of challenges and VMs (downloads).
https://www.vulnhub.com/

Career Path Security Researcher & Bug Bounty

Security Researchers work in the field of bug bounties and exploitation, often they are independent but sometimes they also work as employees. I think that both paths are not easy, but of course it can be done. On both paths you can earn lots of $$$ but I also heard of people who came out disappointed. Some people starting this as a side job and then go independent. If you don’t know some basics look here and here.

The reason why I put both paths in one post is that for me you need a similar mindset. You have to be highly motivated, need to learn a lot before you gain some success (well, at least for most people) and if you go independent you work on your own. For both you need a plan or tactics, you can’t just start hacking and hope to find something.

When you want to participate in bug bounties normally you are using platforms like hackerone or bugcrowd, but lot’s of companies have their own bounty programs. Since most of these programs are public this makes starting easy.

On the other hand, when you want to start as a researcher and do exploit development, you also have some public resources like ZDI or zerodium. But what is more important than in bug bounty, is networking with other researchers and companies. One way is to go at conferences and trainings, have a look at the links section of this article.

Both paths might take months or even years until you get into it, so this article can only be a starting point that I hope is helpful.

Links

Bug Bounty

Blog Articles, programs

LevelUp 0x02 – Bug Bounty Hunter Methodology v3

Advanced Web Attacks and Exploitation (AWAE)

Probably interesting for both paths, but web hacking is more bug bounty for me…
https://www.offensive-security.com/information-security-training/advanced-web-attack-and-exploitation/

Exploiting

35C3 – From Zero to Zero Day

The Exploit tutorials from corelan

https://www.corelan.be/index.php/articles/
That said, I can highly recommend the trainings that you can book at several conferences:
https://www.corelan-training.com/

OSCE- Cracking the Perimeter (CTP)

Also mentioned here before, the Offensive Security course and certification:
https://www.offensive-security.com/information-security-training/cracking-the-perimeter/

OSEE – Advanced Windows Exploitation (AWE)

I also heard great things about the AWE (OSEE) for more in depth exploitation, but I don’t have personal experience here.

Even more links:
https://www.zerodayinitiative.com/
https://zerodium.com/
https://googleprojectzero.blogspot.com/
and especially this article from project zero:
https://googleprojectzero.blogspot.com/p/working-at-project-zero.html

Conferences

As said before, learning new things and networking is really important, so here are some conferences that seem good, you should also consider to take some trainings:

Books

Hands-On Bug Hunting for Penetration Testers
Author: Joseph Marshall
Content: Go through common bugs in Webapps and introduction to bug bounties
Career: Penetration Tester, Bug Bounty
Level: Beginner

The Shellcoder’s Handbook
Authors: Chris Anley, John Heasman, Felix “FX” Lindner, Gerardo Richarte
Content: Exploiting security holes for Windows, Solaris, MacOSX, Cisco. Although from 2007 still worth reading.
Career: Penetration Tester, Exploiter
Level: Intermediate, Experts

Hacking: The Art of Exploitation
Author: Jon Erickson
Content: Goes from the first steps in Bash and C to in depth exploitation and debugging on Linux.
Career: Penetration Tester, Exploit Developer
Level: Beginner, Intermediate, Expert

And here is a great free book:
Modern Windows Exploit Development
http://docs.alexomar.com/biblioteca/Modern%20Windows%20Exploit%20Development.pdf

Book review The Hacker Playbook 3

The Hacker Playbook 3
Authors: Peter Kim
Content: Main focus is on Red Teaming
Career: Penetration Tester
Level: Intermediate, Expert

This week I did read the great book The Hacker Playbook 3 by Peter Kim. The focus of the book lies on Red Teaming, it makes sense to read also the first two books if you do not have prior knowledge to penetration testing.


Content:

  • Difference between pentesting and red teaming
  • MITRE ATT&CK framework
  • Tools setup
  • Reconnaissance phase
  • optional lab setup & exercises
  • about web attacks like node.js, nosql injections, deserializiation attacks and more
  • hacking the (windows) network for example with responder, password spraying
  • privilege escalation with misconfigured services, exploit suggester and more
  • mimikatz magic of course
  • attacks on macs with empire
  • bloodhound and sharphound
  • lateral movement using different techniques
  • pivoting
  • social engineering campaings & physical attacks
  • recompile meterpreter dlls for avoiding detection
  • password cracking
  • write your own droppers

I highly recommend this book, especially if you are into Red Teaming it is a good resource. Maybe a report about owing the Cyber Space Kittens lab would have been nice, since reporting in Red Teaming is a non trivial task.

Write-up hackthebox netmon

After the getting started article, here is a walkthrough for hackthebox netmon, to get an impression how to pwn machines. This was a nice one and I guess one of the the easier.

Portscan

Nmap 7.70 scan initiated Thu May 23 21:38:11 2019 as: nmap -A -oA netmon 10.10.10.152
Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.152
Host is up (0.043s latency).
Not shown: 995 closed ports
PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION
21/tcp open ftp Microsoft ftpd
| ftp-anon: Anonymous FTP login allowed (FTP code 230)
| 02-03-19 12:18AM 1024 .rnd
| 02-25-19 10:15PM inetpub
| 07-16-16 09:18AM PerfLogs
| 02-25-19 10:56PM Program Files
| 02-03-19 12:28AM Program Files (x86)
| 02-03-19 08:08AM Users
|02-25-19 11:49PM Windows | ftp-syst: | SYST: Windows_NT
80/tcp open http Indy httpd 18.1.37.13946 (Paessler PRTG bandwidth monitor)
|_http-server-header: PRTG/18.1.37.13946
| http-title: Welcome | PRTG Network Monitor (NETMON)
|_Requested resource was /index.htm
|_http-trane-info: Problem with XML parsing of /evox/about
135/tcp open msrpc Microsoft Windows RPC
139/tcp open netbios-ssn Microsoft Windows netbios-ssn
445/tcp open microsoft-ds Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 - 2012 microsoft-ds
No exact OS matches for host (If you know what OS is running on it, see https://nmap.org/submit/ ).
TCP/IP fingerprint:
OS:SCAN(V=7.70%E=4%D=5/23%OT=21%CT=1%CU=30959%PV=Y%DS=2%DC=T%G=Y%TM=5CE6F6C
OS:0%P=x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)SEQ(SP=107%GCD=1%ISR=108%CI=I%II=I%TS=A)SEQ(SP=1
OS:07%GCD=1%ISR=108%TS=A)SEQ(SP=107%GCD=1%ISR=108%II=I%TS=A)OPS(O1=M54DNW8S
OS:T11%O2=M54DNW8ST11%O3=M54DNW8NNT11%O4=M54DNW8ST11%O5=M54DNW8ST11%O6=M54D
OS:ST11)WIN(W1=2000%W2=2000%W3=2000%W4=2000%W5=2000%W6=2000)ECN(R=Y%DF=Y%T=
OS:80%W=2000%O=M54DNW8NNS%CC=Y%Q=)T1(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%S=O%A=S+%F=AS%RD=0%Q=)T2
OS:(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%W=0%S=Z%A=S%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)T3(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%W=0%S=Z%A=O%
OS:F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)T4(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%W=0%S=A%A=O%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)T5(R=Y%DF=Y%
OS:T=80%W=0%S=Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)T6(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%W=0%S=A%A=O%F=R%O=%RD
OS:=0%Q=)T7(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%W=0%S=Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)U1(R=Y%DF=N%T=80%IPL
OS:=164%UN=0%RIPL=G%RID=G%RIPCK=G%RUCK=G%RUD=G)IE(R=Y%DFI=N%T=80%CD=Z)
Network Distance: 2 hops
Service Info: OSs: Windows, Windows Server 2008 R2 - 2012; CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows
Host script results:
|clock-skew: mean: 11s, deviation: 0s, median: 10s | smb-security-mode: | account_used: guest | authentication_level: user | challenge_response: supported | message_signing: disabled (dangerous, but default)
| smb2-security-mode:
| 2.02:
|_ Message signing enabled but not required
| smb2-time:
| date: 2019-05-23 21:38:48
|_ start_date: 2019-05-23 21:34:54
TRACEROUTE (using port 1723/tcp)
HOP RTT ADDRESS
1 54.00 ms 10.10.12.1
2 54.08 ms 10.10.10.152
OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done at Thu May 23 21:38:40 2019 -- 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 29.10 seconds

Connect via FTP

The user hash is easily found:

Now we have a look at the running web server. A PRTG instance is running here. After some searching the web it was clear that this might be a vulnerable version of PRTG (https://www.codewatch.org/blog/?p=453). No login with std creds (prtgadmin/prtgadmin) possible…

But we have the FTP server, which gives us some infomation:Some interesting stuff in the windows dir:

Here the credentials are encrypted. Some research show that in older versions that might be a problem (TODO, link). So I spent some time in finding valid credentials.

Also in c:\windows:

c:\ProgrammData is hidden but can be seen if you access it directly:

Get netmon prtgadmin credentials:

Something interesting in PRTG Configuration.old.bak:

After some trying I found out that the new password was: PrTg@admin2019, so this is something you have sometimes in real life, finding some credentials but still need to try around a bit. Then I followed mostly this description of the vulnerability: https://www.codewatch.org/blog/?p=453

Add a notification:

Leave defaults and choose “Execute Program” with the following settings:

Success, we can now get the hash from the test,txt file:

Pwnd! What I liked on this machine was that you needed to combine vulnerabilities. First find the credentials, then alter them to the working credentials. After that you had RCE.

Book Review Hands-on Bug Hunting for Penetration Testers

Hands-On Bug Hunting for Penetration Testers
Author: Joseph Marshall
Content: Go through common bugs in Webapps and introduction to bug bounties
Career: Penetration Tester, Bug Bounty
Level: Beginner

The main audience of Bug Hunting for Penetration Testers are coders and penetration testers interested in bug bounties. The book goes through bug bounty programs, penetration testing and the usual web security vulnerabilites like XSS, SQL injections, XEE and so on.

As the title sais, the book was written for people with prior knowledge in penetration testing. So the vulnerabtilies are not explained in depth, but nevertheless it is suitable also for beginners if they are willing to go deeper later and using other sources, after each chapter there are some recommendations for it.

For me the perspective as a bug hunter is pretty interesting, and the book is going into automatisation of some tasks and which vulnerabilites are usually interesting for bug bounty programs and how to report them. For getting an impression about the coding have a look here, unfortunatelly the code base is for python 2.7 and not python 3. The books is also informing about information gathering and bug bounty strategies. What I also like are the end-to-end examples, from finding and exploiting a vulnerability to a short example report. Later reporting is explained into more detail.

If you are interested in Bug Bounty programs you should have a look into this book.

Career Path Penetration Testing Basics

Penetration Testing – “A method for gaining assurance in the security of an IT system by attempting to breach some or all of that system’s security, using the same tools and techniques as an adversary might.” (From wikipedia)

The scope of the article is to help to get your first job as a penetration tester. If you have more great links or recommendations please add them in the comments section. Becoming a good penetration tester requires much more skills than described here. It also means that you never stop learning.

If you don’t know the IT- and IT security basics yet, please have a look here. When you want to start a career in Penetration Testing you should know that most of the penetration tests performed today are Web Application tests. Therefore this article is focusing on this topic. Later I will add new posts with Specializiation Paths for more advanced topics like exploitation, red teaming and so on.

As already mentioned in the article Career Path Security Basics, I strongly suggest that you make a plan what goal you want to reach. For example playing CTF all the time might be fun for some people, but if you need the OSCP it might not be helpful to waste too much time.

Web App Penetration Testing

Port Swigger: Web Security Academy
Content: Teaches the basics of Web Application Security, so far SQL Injection, XSS, OS command injection and File Path traversal. Comes with small labs.
Career: Penetration Test but I recommend it also for everyone interested in security
Level: Beginner
Price: Free

Recommended Link about Web App Hacking:

 

General

OSCP
If you want to start a career in Penetration Testing you might consider to make the OSCP certification. But you should have in mind that the OSCP is extremely time consuming and it is not a must have, but definitely a door opener. Therefore I recommend to do the OSCP certification. Here is an article about pros & cons of certifications.

Hands On

Here are some hands on for labs and learning. Some of them are online, others have to be installed and run by yourself.

Books

The Web Application Hackers Handbook
Authors: Daffy Stuttard, Marcus Pinto
Content: The standard book about hacking Web Applications, goes into depth about the most important topics. Authors also created the BurpSuit.
Career: Penetration Tester
Level: Good for beginners, but also useful for experienced penetration testers

Penetration Testing: A Hands-On Introduction to Hacking
Author: Georgia Weidman
Content: A great introduction into penetration testing.
Career: Penetration Tester
Level: Beginner

Metasploit: A Penetration Tester’s Guide
Authors: David Kennedy, Jim O’Gorman, Devon Kearns, Mati Aharoni
Content: Introduction to Metasploit and penetration testing
Career: Penetration Tester
Level: Beginner, Intermediate

The Hacker Playbook 2
Author: Peter Kim
Content: Book for penetration testing, hands on hacking, pivoting, evasion and so on. 
Career: Penetration Tester
Level: All

Network Security Assessment
Author: Chris McNab
Content: Assessment of various network services.
Career: Penetration Tester
Level: All

German Book: Hacking mit Metasploit
Author: Michael Messner
Content: Great introduction to penetration testing and metasploit.
Career: Penetration Tester 
Level: Beginner/Intermediate

Links

Thanks @SparkyS04 for proofreading.

Review Portswigger Web Security Academy

Link: Web Security Academy
Content: Teaches the basics of Web Application Security, so far SQL Injection, XSS, OS command injection and File Path traversal. Comes with small labs.
Career: Penetration Tester but I recommend it also for everyone interested in security
Level: Beginner
Price: Free

Web Security Academy

The description from the originial website:
Welcome to the Web Security Academy. This is a brand new learning resource providing free training on web security vulnerabilities, techniques for finding and exploiting bugs, and defensive measures for avoiding them.
The Web Security Academy contains high-quality learning materials, interactive vulnerability labs, and video tutorials. You can learn at your own pace, wherever and whenever suits you. Best of all, everything is free!

For tracking and doing the labs you need to create an accout.

I found the explanations and the labs very suitable for beginners and I think it is a great starting point for web application security.

The team behind it is the same that is behind the Burpsuite and the famous Web Application Hackers Handbook (consider buying it if you want to go deeper into the topic):

The Web Application Hackers Handbook
Authors: Daffy Stuttard, Marcus Pinto
Content: The standard book about hacking Web Applications, goes into depth about the most important topics. Authors also created the BurpSuit.
Career: Penetration Tester
Level: Good for beginners, but also useful for experienced penetration testers
Buy at Amazon U.S.
Buy at Amazon Germany